Vaults, part 1
Vaults: a) cylindrical, b) cruciform, c) monastic, d) monastic on the hexagon, e) sailboats, f) dome, g) a sail dome with an attached canopy, h) cruciform climbed.
Depending on the purpose of the building and rooms and the architectural design of their interior, the vaults shown in the drawing are used for the covers.
Brick and stone vaults were used in construction from Roman times until the 20th century. Due to the difficulties of their implementation, heavy weight of the vaults, wall expansion forces, these vaults are hardly used any more for ceilings, and the covers of monumental buildings are made of reinforced concrete in the form of thin-walled coatings. In addition, ceiling vaults take up more space than flat roofs.
Cylindrical vaults (Lynx. a) are used for a span of approx. 6,0 m. The elevation arrow is from 1/12 do 1/4 the span of the vault. For a spread up to 3,0 m the thickness of the vault is 1/2 bricks. Above 3,0 m thick vaults are made 1/2 bricks reinforced with spaced ribs 1,2-2,0 m and projecting upwards or downwards.
Approximate thickness of the vaults depending on the spans used in residential buildings.
The bricks in the vault are usually placed in a common bond, less often in a herringbone or cut. The correct arrangement of bricks in the vault should correspond to the direction of compressive forces occurring in the vault. Such an arrangement of bricks occurs in the common bond.