External walls in reinforced concrete buildings

Curtain wall sections: a), b) masonry walls with cladding, c), d) curtain walls; 1 - ceiling, 2 - sill wall, 3 - curtain wall, 4 - sill wall, e.g.. from aerated concrete, 5 - curtain wall, 6 - air gap,
7 - thermal insulation, 8 - square.

In reinforced concrete buildings, external walls can be load-bearing, self-supporting and shielding, while in steel frame buildings, curtain walls are predominantly used. Curtain walls are external non-load-bearing walls that act as an insulating barrier. These walls bear the load caused by the action of the wind, which, together with their own weight, transfer to the supporting structure of the building.

Depending on the type of wall material used and the method of execution, they can be divided into one wall- or multi-layer, which can be hung on the structure from the outside of the building or - filling walls placed on the transoms of frames or ceiling rims. The figure above shows the cross-sections of curtain walls at the height of the lintel to the window sill. In multi-storey buildings, concrete or brick walls are used under the windows due to the protection against the penetration of fire from the lower storeys to the upper ones., with a height not less than 60 cm. The detail of the three-layer filling wall is shown in the drawing below.

Cross-sections of a three-layer external wall: a) connection of the wall with the reinforced concrete slab ceiling, b) connection of the wall with the ceiling and the lintel; 1 - ceiling, 2 - brick wall, 3 - mineral wool insulation, 4 - brick facing, 5 - window frame.

Curtain walls can be assembled from vertical or horizontal elements. In the vertical arrangement, the wall elements are attached to the window posts spaced in the right rhythm, while in a horizontal arrangement, it is attached to the transoms.
There are many design solutions for curtain walls. These walls are usually three-layered. The outer cladding of walls is usually made of glass plates, metal (aluminium, stainless steel) or from ceramic tiles.

Ways of fixing curtain walls: a) to the poles, b) do rygli; 1 - bolt (sill wall), 2 - sill wall, 3 - window post, 4 - window bolt, 5 - window frame, 6 - element of the sill wall, 7 - an element of a curtain wall with a window.

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