Monolithic walls and ceilings of multi-storey buildings are usually made of plain concrete with a full section (γ = 2500 kg/m³) or concrete with lighter aggregate (γ = 1400-1700 kg/m³). Spans of solid reinforced concrete slab ceilings are up to approx. 7,5 m, while ceilings with holes or light filling approx. 9,0 m.
In residential buildings, the spacing of the walls is up to approx. 7,5 m, while in hotel rooms up to approx. 4,0 m. Wall thickness of buildings up to 20 storeys are assumed within 16-18 cm, and up to 30 storeys 18-30 cm. This thickness depends on the distance at which the walls are spaced (floor span), the height of the building and the size of the loads acting from the ceilings on the walls.
The thickness of the solid floor slabs is 12-20 cm, on the other hand, with orifice plates and with light filling 20-30 cm. Due to the acoustic insulation, the thickness of the board should not be less than 16 cm. Longwall and slab structures are heavy and use a lot of concrete. M
When using slab ceilings, the lowest overall height of the building is achieved. Slab ceilings are particularly suitable for use in housing construction due to the possibility of obtaining smooth surfaces on the underside without additional materials and workload..
Buildings with walls with a small pitch, i.e.. do 6,0 m, they are not very susceptible to changing their functional function, e.g.. residential or hotel rooms into larger shop spaces, clubs, nurseries for children or kindergartens, The rooms on any floor can be enlarged by cutting additional openings in load-bearing walls or by replacing the walls with columns. For utility reasons, most often in the ground floor, shaft-column or wall-column structures are used..