Framework structures: a) with bolts protruding from the ceiling, b) bolts hidden in the ceiling (column-plate structure); 1 - pole, 2 - frame bolt, 3 - a floor slab based on a transom, 4 - floor slab based on poles, 5 - balcony gallery slab.
A structure with articulated nodes is also called a column-beam structure. In reinforced concrete structures, frame structures may constitute separate structures, in which the bolts protrude from the ceilings (Lynx. a) or they are hidden in the ceilings, e.g.. in column-plate structures (Lynx. b).
Frames with rigid joints are used in buildings with a height of 15-20 storeys. In buildings with a height above 10 floors, it is advisable for technical and economic reasons to use frames cooperating with the walls (Lynx. a, b) or frames with lattice braces.
Walls are usually adopted in reinforced concrete structures, while lattice braces - in steel structures. Buildings, where load-bearing wall and frame structures or frames with vertical braces are used, they can reach heights of up to 40 storeys.
Stiffening walls and braces are usually used in skeletal structures (framework), in which the transoms and columns are connected by hinged nodes.
Frames with rigid knots as well as walls and railings ensure the stiffness of the building to the action of horizontal forces caused by wind or ground movement (seismic or parasiteismic vibrations). Stiffening walls and braces are placed on the building plan to ensure its rigidity during construction and use. In some cases, reinforced concrete walls can also be used instead of steel braces.