Structural systems of longwall buildings: a) longitudinal, b) transverse, c) bidirectional mixed, d) bidirectional cross; 1 - load-bearing wall, 2 - stiffening wall, 3 - curtain wall, 4 - partition wall, 5 - between the residential acoustic wall.
Multi-storey buildings with longwall structures are made of brick or concrete. In some countries, brick buildings reach heights of up to 25 storeys, while made of concrete (reinforced concrete) achieve, much higher heights - up to 60 storeys.
The load-bearing structure of the longwall buildings is made of load-bearing walls (Shields), ceilings and stiffening walls.
Depending on the orientation of load-bearing walls that take over the load from the ceilings, the following construction systems are distinguished:
a) longitudinal – with load-bearing walls parallel to the longitudinal axis of the building and ceilings stretched perpendicular to this axis (Lynx. a),
b) transverse - with load-bearing walls perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the building and ceilings stretched parallel to this axis (Lynx. b),
c) mixed - with load-bearing walls perpendicular and parallel to the longitudinal axis of the building (Lynx. c),
d) cross - with load-bearing walls situated both in parallel, as well as perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the building and the ceilings based on the perimeter, reinforced in two directions (Lynx. d).
In practice, load-bearing structures consisting of walls and frames, shafts and columns or shafts and frames are also used.
Due to the external walls used, buildings are divided into: closed type buildings and open type buildings. In closed-type buildings (Lynx. a) the outer walls are structural walls and are made parallel to other walls when the building is erected. In open-plan buildings (Lynx. b) external walls are made after the load-bearing walls have been made. These walls can be curtain or self-supporting.