Monolithic wall and plate structures are made at the construction site with the use of appropriate formwork and forms. The following types of formwork can be used to form monolithic structures:
a) mobile formwork repeatedly relocated from the lower to the upper tier during the construction of the building, they are used to make all or part of walls and ceilings,
b) sliding formwork used to construct buildings with a longitudinal structural arrangement, mostly closed, they are moved along the building as the works progress, they are used for the simultaneous execution of a fragment of walls and ceilings of a building,
c) The sliding formwork moves vertically in a continuous motion and is mainly used for load-bearing walls, they are used to erect buildings with a closed system of walls and shafts.
Depending on the formwork structures used to make the construction, joints between floor slabs and walls can be articulated or rigid. Rigid connections are easier to achieve when using floating or sliding formwork.
When using sliding forms, there are great difficulties in obtaining continuity of the structure in the places where the concrete of the walls meets the concrete of the floor slabs. The sliding molds are mainly used to make structures with simple shapes.
The figure shows the wall reinforcement and the rigid connection of the floor slab with the wall. At the connection point, the slab is concreted simultaneously with the wall. The slab reinforcement is embedded in the wall along its length, ensuring proper cooperation between the ceiling and the wall.
Reinforcement of reinforced concrete walls: a) wall diagram, b) view of the connection of the floor slab with the wall, c) fragment of reinforcement of one story; 1 - bearing bars, 2 - distribution bars (antispasmodics).