Frame structures are widely used in buildings, where there is a need for rooms with more space without walls and with a small number of poles. These are most often commercial rooms, warehouse, production, office etc.. In recent years, multi-functional buildings have been erected, i.e.. such, in which various utility functions are arranged vertically on individual floors. The most appropriate load-bearing structure for these buildings are skeletal structures consisting of columns and ceilings with a small number of load-bearing and stiffening walls..
The skeletal structures of multi-storey buildings are made of monolithic and prefabricated reinforced concrete and steel structures.
Depending on the height of the building and its purpose, the following load-bearing structures can be used:
a) flat or spatial frame,
c) frame and wall, frame-tethered,
d) single shell,
e) double-skinned (molar-integument),
f) sheath bundles (shell with a lattice).
The frame structures are made of transoms and columns connected by rigid or articulated nodes. In monolithic structures, rigid knots are usually used, while in prefabricated reinforced concrete structures, articulated joints are more often used.
Steel mullions and transoms can be connected with both rigid ones, as well as articulated knots. The figure shows frames with rigid and articulated nodes used in reinforced concrete and steel structures.
Load-bearing structures of buildings: a) framework structure, b) column-beam structure, c) rigid node of the reinforced concrete frame, d) steel frame rigid knot, e) instruction for articulated concrete bolt, f) steel; 1 - bolt (bar), 2 — slup, 3 - connection, 4 - multi-hole plate, 5 - post bracket.