External longitudinal and gable walls not loaded with ceilings
Types of external walls with a transverse arrangement: a) self-supporting, b) cover: 1 - self-supporting, 2 - cover.
External longitudinal and gable walls not loaded with ceilings (i.e.. not bearable) they can be made as self-supporting walls or as curtain walls. Self-supporting wall (Lynx. a) carries its own weight, which it transmits directly to the foundation. Curtain wall (filling) is set on the ceiling and transfers its own weight to the ceiling of each floor (Lynx. b).
In both solutions, the wind load is transferred from the outer walls to the transverse walls. Self-supporting walls (Lynx. a) .they constitute the stiffening of the building, while the layout (Lynx. b) requires adequate stiffening in the longitudinal direction. The role of stiffeners can be played by internal longitudinal walls and walls of staircases.
Shape and dimensions of both wall panels, and ceilings depend on where they are located in the building and on the production methods, assembly and transport. The width of the floor slabs depends on the means of transport and is usually not greater than 2,4 m, and sometimes 2,7 m. Larger panels cannot be transported on public roads due to their overall dimensions and applicable regulations. The length of the plates usually does not exceed 12,0 m. Wall panels are transported vertically. Their height corresponds to the height of a building storey of approx. 3,0 m, and the length of the depth of the road (peace) ok. 6,0 m.
The thickness of the inner plates is mainly determined by the strength and acoustic conditions, while selecting the thickness of external walls, thermal factors should be additionally taken into account. External walls p;and usually produced with a greater thickness due to the insulating layers. The thickness of the internal wall panels depends on the height of the building and amounts to 14-18 cm. In one building, there are over a dozen types of panels that differ in size and shape: plates without installation holes, plates with holes and with cutouts on the edges.